Perfume

Güncelleme tarihi: 6 May


Perfume or parfum is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent


Perfumes have been known to exist in some of the earliest human civilizations, either through ancient texts or from archaeological digs. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone.

What is a Perfumer?

A perfumer, also commonly referred to as a fumer, is an artist who relies on her olfactory talents and their refinement to identify and distinguish traditional and unique fragrance ingredients.

What are perfume notes:


Top Notes

The top notes of a fragrance are sometimes known as opening notes or head notes because they are the fragrance notes recognised on immediate application. Top notes are the lightest of all the notes. As a result of their lightness, top notes are also the first to fade - but that doesn’t disregard their importance.

Top notes represent the first impression. They may not be the longest-lasting element of a fragrance but they’re the first thing you’ll smell when trying a new fragrance. Top notes represent the initial scents that lure you in, causing you to make your first impression of the fragrance.

Typical top notes include citrus elements ( Lime, bergamot, lemon, orange ), light fruits (anise, berries, grapefruit) and fresh herbs (basil, sage, lavender).


Heart Notes

As their name suggests, heart notes lie at the heart of the fragrance. Otherwise known as middle notes, this scent layer is the foundation of any fragrance and is known to make up approximately 40-80% of the final fragrance.

The heart notes start to make an appearance just before the top notes fade away and will strongly influence the base notes to come. Heart notes aren’t to be taken lightly!

The heart of a fragrance should be pleasant and well-rounded. Because of this, scents such as cinnamon, rose, ylang ylang, lemongrass and neroli are all common and recognisable heart notes.


Base Notes

Finally, the base notes will start to shine through once the top notes have completely evaporated. Alone, base notes make up 10-25% of the final fragrance. However, the base notes also blend with the heart notes to deepen the complexity of the fragrance.

Where the top notes make the initial impression, the base notes are associated with the dry-down period of the fragrance and so, base notes will create the final, lasting impression.

Base notes are often rich and smooth, as well as being the longest lasting of the three notes. Common base notes include cedarwood, sandalwood, vanilla, patchouli and musk.


Fascinating Perfume Terms: Sillage Pronounced “see-yazh,” this refers to the trail of scent left behind from a perfume. You know when someone steps off an elevator and you catch a whiff of their Chloé? Hello, sillage.



Note Simply put, a note is like an ingredient. Notes are divided into three categories or levels: top, middle and base. Together they make up the entire fragrance. The top note is usually the first thing you smell when you pick up a perfume bottle. As that evaporates, you get a whiff of the middle (also referred to as the “heart”) and finally, the base note (which is what lingers on your skin).

Drydown In re, that whole note-evaporation thing: That final stage of wear (when the top and middle notes give way to the base note) is the drydown. The amount of time it takes to reach the drydown—and how the drydown will smell—is unique to every individual (which is why the same perfume might smell different on you than it does on your bestie).

Accord It’s not just a compact car. In perfumes, an accord is when two or more notes are blended together to create an entirely new scent.

Gourmand This is a popular category of fragrance that smells sweet and could be found in a kitchen—or baking in an oven. Think: honey, vanilla, chocolate or various fruits like raspberry. Examples of gourmand perfumes include Thierry Mugler Angel and Prada Candy.

Aldehydes In a nutshell, aldehydes are aromatic compounds present in many natural materials (like roses). But synthetic versions can also be produced in a lab. When added to a fragrance, they give it a certain zest or sparkle. The most popular example of a perfume with aldehydes is Chanel No. 5.

Concentration Fragrances are available in four major strength concentrations: parfum, eau de parfum, eau de toilette and eau de cologne (in descending order of strength). The concentration refers to the perfume-oil-to-alcohol ratio in each bottle. The higher the concentration, the longer it will last on your skin.

Oriental Also referred to as amber fragrances, this popular category of scents is characterized by rich, warm notes (like frankincense and—you guessed it—amber). Oriental perfumes are usually more intense and longer lasting than others. Some examples include Yves Saint Laurent Opium and Tom Ford Velvet Orchid.

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Perfume:

Perfume and Fragrance Science

Since scent is intangible and invisible, many of us know the scent as an abstract concept; but scientifically it is not abstract but tangible because it is the sensation created by odor molecules that make their way into our nose and stick. The olfactory memory is the strongest memory. A scent can remind us of a memory from our past.



There are more than 10 million olfactory receptors in your nose, and your brain can process and identify about 10,000 different odors on a surface area the size of a postage stamp.



The smell of body odor doesn't actually come from sweat itself. Rather, it gives off a distinctive and often unpleasant odor as a result of bacteria on your skin digesting sweat, breaking down proteins into certain acids. Your scent cells have a limited life cycle. As a result, these cells are renewed approximately every twenty-eight days. So technically we get a new nose every four weeks. While the exact number has yet to be determined, scientists revealed in a 2014 journal that humans can identify at least a trillion different scents. However, it is thought that the real number may be much higher, thanks to the 10 million olfactory receptors in everyone's nose. The tests found that women have a more developed sense of smell than men and are able to identify a greater number of different odors. This is thanks to the prefrontal region of the brain, which is more developed than in men.



People around the age of 18-19 is when our sense of smell peaks. After this age, our sense of smell gradually decreases. Surprisingly, people can remember odors with 65% accuracy after one year, whereas visual recalls are only found to be 50% accurate, and without the sense of smell it would be nearly impossible to tell the difference in taste between potatoes and onions. Before smelling the perfume you see in some perfume shops or while smelling another perfume, coffee beans are sniffed to make the nose neutral, but this is not an effective method and has no scientific evidence.


Taste is dependent on smell, so food is tasteless when you have the flu. Without olfactory agility, you can't tell the difference in smell between potatoes and onions.

Perfume The same scent can smell different on two people. Perfume can mix with your skin's own chemistry when applied. Sweat, the environment, and even your diet all play a role in how your perfume smells to your friend.


Perfumes today are not made from real flowers. Due to the mass production of perfume, real flower essences had to be replaced by synthetic fragrances. Due to the longer expiry dates, the shelf life of the perfume bottle has been extended with the help of chemical notes, and it is obvious that they make great contributions to the sustainable cosmetics industry, which is much cheaper and easy to supply.


As is known, some perfumes contain animal ingredients. These ingredients are also synthetic and are used in a variety of fragrances.


Fragrances from some natural sources include civet, an ingredient derived from the feces or anal glands of the civet.


Since natural scents such as sandalwood or musk were preferred, natural scents are replaced by synthetic aromatics in today's world due to illegal smuggling and species extinction.



Both have advantages and disadvantages. Aromas such as musk derived from natural ingredients are extremely complex and impossible to imitate with synthetic aromatics such as nitro-musks or macrocyclic musks.


On the other hand, ozone, marine, metallic etc. Synthesis aromas do not have a parallel olfactory relationship in natural scents, they are obtained by natural synthesis.

The Perfume Industry without Borders has always wanted to be used to design fantastic interesting scents and long researches Over the years some ambitious projects have been developed, including scents that mimic the scents of snow and wet earth, mineral scents, but some scents are more difficult or even impossible to catch than others. The aroma chemicals required to replicate scents have not yet been identified, for example, gasoline, champagne and some wines and some animal scents. “The knowledge and experience of the molecules needed to accurately produce distinctive scents, especially in puppies and kittens, are still not in the fragrance palette of world-renowned perfumers and are unlikely to be resolved any time soon.


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