Güncelleme tarihi: 10 May

Musk Empire:

Lord of fragrances:

Origin and history of animal notes

Discovered by Alexander the Great around 330 BC, animal notes have always been widely used by perfumers who appreciated their strong scent and resistance to evaporation. Animal notes, often used in small doses, combined with finer scents to add softness to perfumes without being noticed.

At the beginning of the 20th century, most scents consisted of animal notes.

These were called "fixatives". Indeed, they were very stubborn and joined the base notes while giving the fragrances a real sensual side. As for Kastorea, it gave a very distinctive leather note to both women's and men's perfumes.

Today, animal conservation has led to the banning of most animal grades (except for ambergris, as it does cause animal suffering). They are also less appreciated by today's customers and therefore less popular in contemporary perfumery.

Musk Deer: One of the seven gazelle species belonging to the Moschidae. This hornless little gazelle lives in the mountain range and forests of the Himalayan and Asian steppes extending to Central Asia, Kashmir, India, Pakistan, Persia, Tibet, Chinese Siberia and Mongolia.

This gazelle species, which is among the most precious scents in the world after the smell of agarwood, is one of the most valuable scents in the world, and its population has decreased due to poaching. .

Obtained from male gazelles, it exhibits a rather enormous beautiful and complex fragrance profile, it is a captivating note that is specifically animalistic, earthy, vanilla-like, floral-sweet, leathery, powdery. The substance that makes musk musk and makes it smell so good is due to the musk substance it contains.

In the city of Marrakech (Morocco) there is a minaret about 70 m high, built by order of the Sultan as a sign of victory over the Spaniards. The minaret is famous for the musk smell of its walls. During the construction of the minaret in 1195, it turned out that about a thousand bags of musk were mixed with the cement that held the stones together. And the smell has not disappeared even after 800 years

Use of animal musk in perfumery:

animal musk and white musk

Moreover, the synthetic musk scent used in perfumery is close to the scent of black coffee or even floral (do not confuse it with the animal musk scent, that is, it is very strong, somewhat animalistic). To avoid confusion, synthetic musk is called white musk. Musk notes (or white musk) are the base notes in perfumes.

Synthetic Musk: In 1979, musk deer became a protected species and at this time the use of synthetic musk began to be used as an alternative to deer musk. '

The modern musk notes are an abstraction from the original animal musk, and these days the musk note means it's a warm, sweet, sensual powdery ivy scent with undertones of a natural skin scent.

Common synthetic musks ingredients:

  • Nitromusks eg Moskene, musk xylene* **, musk ambrette, musk ketone,

  • Polycystic musks eg Galxaolide (HHCB)**, Tonalide**, Cashmeran

  • Macrocylic musks eg muscone, ambrettolide

  • Aclicylic musks eg Helvetolide, Romandolide

The popularity of musk notes exploded in the 1990s, during which time several new synthetic musks were developed and still today, musk notes remain among the most sought-after properties for perfume buyers. Synthetic musks are relatively inexpensive to produce, especially when compared to their natural counterparts, especially 1kg for ambrette 'okra' seed of botanical origin. While it was $20,000, real musk would find buyers for thousands of dollars higher than this, faced with the fact that it was inevitable to reduce the cost in perfumes, the tendency to obtain botanical musk and synthetic musk types that are easy to produce and supply, increasing demand day by day, and in addition, Synthetic musk in perfumery has made it even easier for perfume companies to have an exceptionally lasting longevity, often on the skin or clothing for several days.

Natural botanical perfumery, the fact that a musky scent is completely achievable, yielded exceptionally beautiful results, The truest botanical musk is derived from the ambrette okra seed 'Hibiscus abelmoschus' intensely rich, nutty, musky, floral, slightly oily, with a bit of nuances and undertones of cognac and sage It has been described as a tobacco and leather back note.

The difference between botanical origin musk and gazelle musk: The difference between herbal musk and gazelle musk is generally confused by the public, and the opinion that both musks are the same is dominant, whereas gazelle musk is animal pheromone-based scents, as the name suggests, and the other type of musk, called attar, is completely herbal-based and in its formula. Among the essential oils that imitate musk, plants such as Olearia argophylla, Angelica archangelica, Mimulus moschatus, Abelmoschus moschatus are often used, as well as hydro distillation on sandalwood oil, which is a very complex mixture of some roots and resins of gall, jasmine, henna, marigold, vanilla, amber. It can be briefly summarized as a dark viscous liquid obtained by the technique of musk. This type of musk, also known as black musk among the people, containing very sweet animalic nuances, is one of the more economical natural fragrances produced as an alternative to gazelle musk.

After hydro distillation, the camel skin seen on the top of the herbal musk is kept in the bottle for 1 to 10 years, and then it is available for use (those who want to get more detailed information on this subject can read the topic I opened about the attar section.


A weasel species from the Marten family, the mink is in the class of animals that produce musk and is hunted for its fur, and its odor profile is defined only in luxury perfumes thanks to the musk scent pheromones it produces; It is crowned in perfume formulas and attar type natural non-alcoholic scents with its heavy, dirty, sweet, dark suede scent.

If the musk produced by the mink is combined with other scents rather than plain use, it gives great results to create mysterious mystical, sensual, hypnotic scent effects. Mink gives very good results when blended and mixed with scents such as rose, lily, tuberose, ylang-ylang, amber, sandalwood, orange, lemon and tobacco.

Perfumes containing mink:

M/Mink Byredo for women and men

Mink And Pearls Jovan for women

Rebecca Minkoff Rebecca Minkoff

Milky Musk 39 Parle Moi de Parfum


AFRICAN CIVET CAT (Civetictis civetta): The African civet civet has an average weight of 15 kg and a length of about 146 cm. It mainly preys on fruits, reptiles, rodents, eggs and invertebrates.

civet paste



(Paradoxurus hermaphroditus): The civet civet obtained from this species is placed in the cage by Asian caretakers by applying the scent of another civet cat to the tree, and the Civet cat is placed in the cage by applying the scent of another civet to the tree, and the Civet cat is on that odor to erase, neutralize and mask this odor. It leaves its musk abundantly and then the adherent musk on the tree is collected and the highest quality Civet musk is obtained without exposing the animal to unethical torture and stress in any way.

There are many species of Civet civet, the natural one is used only in expensive perfumes, and the African type, Civettictis civetta, is preferred. The 'musk' is the fragrant liquid secreted from the genital organ that the civet african cat uses to mark its habitat. Mandatory incentivized, it has a tremendously intense scent, varying according to the dilution ratio of pure musk to the creamy consistency of thick yellowish vaseline, the scent contains complex animal accords reminiscent of an almost honey-flower sweet, roasted bitter almond, velvety, dirty fluff fleece.

Often used as base notes in perfumes, it blends wonderfully with mint, myrrh tree resin, opoponax resin, gazelle musk, whale amber, honey scent and other floral scents. is the best option.


Muskrat: An invasive species living in North and South America, hunted for its flesh and fur, named ondatra zibethicus, known as the muskrat, due to its rat resemblance and the pheromone-producing scent of muskrat by its preputial genital glands. With its brown fur and partially webbed hind legs, it can sometimes be confused with a beaver. . It is the closest natural musk type to the white musk scent developed synthetically by the perfume world. The aroma has sweet coconut, soft sugary licorice, fruit flavors and anise, musk ambrette-like scent. It is the cleanest nuanced type of musk obtained from a natural musk in perfumes, and when this musk is blended in combination with floral scents, the resulting scent exhibits a clean clear scent profile like freshly washed laundry recovered in a freshly breezy meadow.

South african hyrax:

Hyrax Hyraceum Lacrianidae: The musk of this mouse-like animal, which usually lives in Africa and the Middle East, is used in special perfumes.

Hyraceum is an extract from an animal commonly called daman des Rochers or Cape daman. It is a cave-dwelling, rabbit-sized, ungulate-like ungulate with two small characteristic teeth. Hyraceum consists of the excrement of this animal in very porous soil that is washed away by rainwater and broken down by pheromone-rich urine.

After this excrement is mixed with soil and roots, it fossilizes in the caves of the dams. The liquid becomes petrified during a very long process, sometimes hundreds of years, until the rocks are completely impregnated with it.

Harvesting Hyraceum essence has existed in East Africa since ancient times and is carried out in very primitive conditions. The hyraceum collectors responsible for collecting the stones soaked in this liquid have to climb into the caves using a ladder, a highly dangerous exercise. They then break the stones with chisels and hammers, pick them up, and ride them through the city on camels to sell.

According to ancient texts, the Egyptians also harvested hyraceum, which was used in embalming techniques, hence its other name, God's Stone or African Stone.

Hyrax urine is not as fluid as that of other mammals, rather it has a thick jelly-like consistency. Hyrax's urine excrement periodically always in the same place in caves and rock crevices. This urine excrement dries over time and becomes heavy and hard as stone, fossilized and petrified, and sold to the perfume industry by the locals. This excrement, which turns it into powder, is specified in pure alcohol, and tincture is made and musk is obtained.

The resulting musk evokes a complex dark combination of scents reminiscent of leather, tobacco and oudh wood and beaver musk, giving perfumes an animalistic, sensual and deep note. It is often used as base notes in perfumes.

Hyraceum has healing properties as well as its use in perfumery. It is used by some Africans to stop bleeding and even disinfect wounds, relieve migraines, anxiety, and treat certain skin problems as well as epilepsy-related convulsions.

The secretions of african cases clinging to rocks may have been hundreds or even thousands of years old before they were petrified and fossilized.

Castoreum beaver:

In the past, beaver musk was used to treat many ailments such as epilepsy, headaches or fever (it contains a molecule close to that found in aspirin) and was also considered an aphrodisiac. Kastoreum is mentioned in medical texts from the Byzantine period and many of its uses in perfumery are attributed to it.

Beaver: The beaver oil embodied in expensive perfumes is obtained from the beaver pouch located between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The scent of pure beaver oil has a variable sweet strong aroma with leather, fruity musk, vanilla nuances.

This animal, which usually lives in North America, is considered very valuable in the perfume industry and is used in perfumes as base notes to get very good results in different scent blends.

beaver musk sac

The scent of Castoreum is leathery, animalistic and smoky. Light brown evokes notes of ink and fur. The little extra of this fragrance is fruity plum, black olive and dried fruit notes.

Castoreum has been used in prestigious perfumes, oriental, chypre, woody and leathery ones. This substance has also been used in cigarettes, some desserts, and even vanilla flavoring.

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